To Deal With Construction Defects It is Necessary to Understand Construction – THREE


A Video Explaining Some More of the Construction of a Dwelling

See the full video at and at

Interior Floor Finishes

Concrete is poured in place from 3½ to 6 inches thick at various areas. It is usually poured into a form built with lumber or uses already placed foundation walls as forms for basement and first floor slabs. The concrete floors are usually reinforced with #3, #4, and/or #5 rods, welded in a 6 by 6 inch mesh.

Hardwood floors are usually prefinished standard red or white oak with dimensions of 3/8 inch by 7/8 inch, or 3/8 inch by 1½ inch, and other variations depending on the needs of the builder. New materials that imitate hardwood are becoming more popular. These materials are marketed under the brand names “Pergo” and “Formica,” among others, and are usually made of wood or composition wood materials laminated with designs that simulate wood, marble or ceramic tile.

Interior Ceiling and Wall Finishes

Walls and ceilings are finished with almost any material that is available and aesthetically pleasing to the owner.

Improper or defective installation of interior wall coverings can allow the growth of fungi or mold, cause cracking in the finishes, allow the entry of unwanted outside air and drafts, and otherwise make living in the dwelling less than pleasant if not injurious to health.

Painting and Wallpaper

There is paint for almost every type of surface and surface condition. The large variety makes it impractical to consider each type of paint. Whatever type of paint is selected can be applied by brush, roller, or spray gun.

Most wall coverings used in normal practice are not really wall “papers.” Wallpaper is a paper material that may or may not be coated with a washable plastic. The products used in most modern construction, although still called “wallpapers,” are actually composed of a vinyl on a fabric backing, not a paper backing. Some vinyl fabric coverings come pre-pasted.

Miscellaneous Exterior Items

Failure or defective installation of any of the components can cause damage to the dwelling, other structures, or the occupants.


Construction defects lawsuits are almost ubiquitous. To deal with such litigation it is necessary for the lawyer or insurance claims person to understand construction and the parts needed to build a structure. This, and the previous videos work to provide the information needed as adapted from my books on Construction Defects and Insurance.

© 2021 – Barry Zalma Barry Zalma, Esq., CFE, now limits his practice to service as an insurance consultant specializing in insurance coverage, insurance claims handling, insurance bad faith and insurance fraud almost equally for insurers and policyholders.

He also serves as an arbitrator or mediator for insurance related disputes. He practiced law in California for more than 44 years as an insurance coverage and claims handling lawyer and more than 54 years in the insurance business.

He is available at and Mr. Zalma is the first recipient of the first annual Claims Magazine/ACE Legend Award. Over the last 53 years Barry Zalma has dedicated his life to insurance, insurance claims and the need to defeat insurance fraud. He has created the following library of books and other materials to make it possible for insurers and their claims staff to become insurance claims professionals.

Go to the podcast Zalma On Insurance at;  Follow Mr. Zalma on Twitter at; Go to Barry Zalma videos at at; Go to Barry Zalma on YouTube-; Go to the Insurance Claims Library – Read posts from Barry Zalma at; and the last two issues of ZIFL at  podcast now available at

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