Document Claims Files & Never Pretend to be a Lawyer

Two More Claims Commandments in Video on YouTube

The video explaining Claims Commandments Nine and Ten are available at .

Claims Commandment IX — Thou Shall Document the Claim File

Insurance claims handling is a person to person business where the claims handler, the insured and the claimant (if there is one) interact with each other. Because the interaction is not always perfect it is essential to document the interaction in the claims file whether hard paper or electronic and paperless. In addition to the fact that such documentation is good claims handling, it is required by most state insurance regulators.

Adjusters, claims handlers and any other claims personnel who maintain “working” or “field” files, should be aware that those additional files are part of the file and records required to be kept by the Regulations and are subject to examination by the Commissioner.

The practice of being less cautious in the maintenance of “working” or “field” files should be discontinued. Every comment and note made in a claims file should be written as if it were addressed to “Dear Commissioner” or Dear Ladies and Gentlemen of the Jury.”

All file destruction practices should be reviewed to ascertain that no file will be destroyed less than five years after it is opened nor less than four years after it is closed. Insurers should also maintain procedures to never destroy a file if litigation has started or is anticipated until after the litigation is resolved.

A diary system for the destruction of old files should be established by the insurer and its claims personnel with a requirement to keep the files at least two years longer than the CDOI requires as an extra precaution.

Claims Commandment X — Thou Shall Not Pretend to be a Lawyer

Some experienced and professional claims people know the law in their area of expertise better than most lawyers. Most claims people do not nor are they capable of pretending that they know the law. Whether the claims person knows the law of insurance contracts or tort law well, he or she is not a lawyer and should not do anything that even hints that the adjuster is acting as a lawyer.

Therefore, communications with an insured, dealing with coverage issues should be limited to the wording of the policy and the claim against the insured. If the case requires that legal authorities be cited to an insured or claimant to best communicate the position of the insurer the adjuster should retain the services of a competent coverage lawyer to write to the insured as the attorney for the insurer.

Many years ago some disreputable insurance companies rescinded policies of insurance as a matter of policy to avoid legitimate claims. The claims staff was instructed to rescind every policy that generated a large claim. When a competent policyholder’s lawyer sued on behalf of those whose policies were rescinded and took the deposition of the adjuster and destroyed the insurers’ position with a simple question: “Please spell rescission.” None could spell it correctly and those who could were stumped by the second question: “What elements must be proved to establish a valid rescission.”

A coverage lawyer would have no trouble answering the two questions. An untrained and inexperienced adjuster could not. The insurers who rescinded willy nilly we assessed punitive damages in addition to requiring them to pay the claims and most went out of business.

Adjusters should be adjusters and leave lawyering to lawyers.

© 2020 – Barry Zalma

This article, and all of the blog posts on this site, digest and summarize cases published by courts of the various states and the United States.  The court decisions have been modified from the actual language of the court decisions, were condensed for ease of reading, and convey the opinions of the author regarding each case.

Barry Zalma, Esq., CFE, now limits his practice to service as an insurance consultant  specializing in insurance coverage, insurance claims handling, insurance bad faith and insurance fraud almost equally for insurers and policyholders. He also serves as an arbitrator or mediator for insurance related disputes. He practiced law in California for more than 44 years as an insurance coverage and claims handling lawyer and more than 52 years in the insurance business. He is available at and

Mr. Zalma is the first recipient of the first annual Claims Magazine/ACE Legend Award.

Over the last 52 years Barry Zalma has dedicated his life to insurance, insurance claims and the need to defeat insurance fraud. He has created the following library of books and other materials to make it possible for insurers and their claims staff to become insurance claims professionals.

Go to Zalma on Insurance on YouTube

Go to the Insurance Claims Library 

Subscribe to e-mail Version of ZIFL, it’s Free!

Read last two issues of ZIFL here.

Go to the Barry Zalma, Inc. web site here

About Barry Zalma

An insurance coverage and claims handling author, consultant and expert witness with more than 48 years of practical and court room experience.
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